A combination of malic acid with magnesium and vitamin B2 (riboflavin). All three of these nutrients are important for energy generation.* Magnesium malate is involved in the Krebs cycle, and in the activation of many enzyme systems that are important for protein and carbohydrate metabolism.*
Magnesium is a mineral that is important for normal bone structure in the body. People get magnesium from their diet, but sometimes magnesium supplements are needed if magnesium levels are too low. Dietary intake of magnesium may be low, particularly among women. Magnesium deficiency is also not uncommon among African Americans and the elderly. Low magnesium levels in the body have been linked to diseases such as osteoporosis, high blood pressure, clogged arteries, hereditary heart disease, diabetes, and stroke.
An easy way to remember foods that are good magnesium sources is to think fiber. Foods that are high in fiber are generally high in magnesium. Dietary sources of magnesium include legumes, whole grains, vegetables (especially broccoli, squash, and green leafy vegetables), seeds, and nuts (especially almonds). Other sources include dairy products, meats, chocolate, and coffee. Water with a high mineral content, or “hard” water, is also a source of magnesium.
Magnesium is most commonly used for constipation, as an antacid for heartburn, for low magnesium levels, for pregnancy complications called pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, and for a certain type of irregular heartbeat (torsades de pointes).
Natural Medicines rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
- Constipation. Taking magnesium by mouth is helpful as a laxative for constipation and to prepare the bowel for medical procedures.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking magnesium by mouth as an antacid reduces symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. Various magnesium compounds can be used, but magnesium hydroxide seems to work the fastest.
- Seizures in women with pre-eclampsia. Administering magnesium intravenously (by IV) or as a shot is considered the treatment of choice for eclampsia. Administering magnesium reduces the risk of seizures in women with this condition.
- Low levels of magnesium in the blood (hypomagnesemia). Taking magnesium is helpful for treating and preventing magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency usually occurs when people have liver disorders, heart failure, vomiting or diarrhea, kidney dysfunction, and other conditions.
- A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Administering magnesium intravenously (by IV) or as a shot is considered the treatment of choice for preventing seizures in women with pre-eclampsia. But taking magnesium by mouth doesn’t seem to reduce the risk for pre-eclampsia in healthy women.
- Cerebral palsy. The best evidence to date shows that giving intravenous (IV) magnesium to pregnant women before a preterm birth can reduce the risk of cerebral palsy in the infant.
- A type of irregular heartbeat (torsades de pointes). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) is helpful for treating a certain type of irregular heartbeat called torsades de pointes.
- Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) or by mouth seems to be helpful for treating irregular heartbeat, also called arrhythmias. It is not yet clear whether magnesium helps reduce irregular heartbeat after heart surgery.
- Asthma. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to help treat sudden asthma attacks. However, it might be more beneficial in children than in adults. Taking magnesium using an inhaler might improve breathing in people with asthma, especially when used with the drug salbutamol. But conflicting results exist. Taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to improve attacks in people with long-term asthma.
- Nerve pain in people with cancer. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to relieve pain caused by nerve damage due to cancer for several hours.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Administering magnesium as a shot seems to improve symptoms of fatigue. But there is some controversy about its benefits.
- A lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). Administering magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to help sudden COPD symptoms. Also, taking magnesium using an inhaler, along with the drug salbutamol, seems to reduce sudden COPD symptoms better than salbutamol alone.
- Cluster headache. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to relieve cluster headaches.
- Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Research shows that eating more foods with magnesium in them is linked to a reduced risk of colon and rectal cancer. But other research suggests that magnesium might reduce colon cancer risk, but not rectal cancer risk.
- Heart disease (coronary heart disease). Taking magnesium by mouth seems to reduce chest pain attacks and blood clots in people with heart disease.
- Cystic fibrosis. Research shows that taking magnesium by mouth daily for 8 weeks improves lung strength in children with cystic fibrosis.
- Diabetes. Eating a diet with more magnesium is linked with a reduced risk of developing diabetes in adults and overweight children. Research on the effects of magnesium for people with existing type 2 diabetes shows conflicting results. In people with type 1 diabetes, magnesium might slow the development of nerve problems caused by diabetes. In women with diabetes in pregnancy, taking magnesium seems to improve sensitivity to insulin and reduce the levels of sugar in the blood.
- Fibromyalgia. Taking magnesium with malic acid (Super Malic tablets) by mouth seems to reduce pain related to fibromyalgia. Taking magnesium citrate daily for 8 weeks seems to improve some symptoms of fibromyalgia.
- Hearing loss. Taking magnesium by mouth seems to prevent hearing loss in people exposed to loud noise. Also, taking magnesium seems to improve hearing loss in people with sudden hearing loss not related to loud noise. Injecting magnesium by IV might also help improve sudden hearing loss.
- High cholesterol. Taking magnesium chloride and magnesium oxide appears to slightly decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) and total cholesterol levels, and slightly increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol. There is also some evidence that magnesium might lower blood fats called triglycerides in people with high triglyceride levels.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). People with low magnesium levels are 6-7 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome than people with normal magnesium levels. Higher magnesium intake from diet and supplements is linked with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome in healthy women and healthy young adults.
- A disease of heart valves (mitral valve prolapse). Taking magnesium by mouth seems to reduce symptoms of mitral valve prolapse in people with low magnesium levels in their blood.
- Weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis). Taking magnesium by mouth seems to prevent bone loss in older women with osteoporosis. Also, taking estrogen along with magnesium plus calcium and a multivitamin supplement appears to increase bone strength in older women better than estrogen alone.
- Pain after surgery. When administered with anesthesia or given to people after surgery, magnesium seems to increase the amount of time before pain develops and might decrease the need to use pain relievers after surgery. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to help reduce pain after a surgical procedure to remove the uterus called a hysterectomy. But magnesium does not seem to help reduce pain in children after tonsil removal.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking magnesium by mouth seems to relieve symptoms of PMS, including mood changes and bloating. Taking magnesium by mouth also seems to prevent premenstrual migraines.
- Chest pain due to blood vessel spasms (vasospastic angina). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to prevent blood vessel spasms in people with chest pain caused by spasms in the artery that supplies blood to the heart.
- Altitude sickness. Research suggests that taking magnesium citrate by mouth daily in three divided doses beginning 3 days before climbing a mountain and continuing until climbing down the mountain does not reduce the risk of sudden altitude sickness.
- Athletic performance. Some early research suggests that taking magnesium by mouth reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on athletic performance. Other research suggests that taking a magnesium supplement (Easymag, Sanofi-Aventis) by mouth daily for 12 weeks slightly improves walking speed in elderly women. Taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to increase energy or endurance during athletic activity.
- Swelling (inflammation) of small airways in the lung (bronchiolitis). Early research shows that receiving magnesium into the vein does not help, and might even worsen bronchiolitis in infants. Inhaling magnesium via a nebulizer also does not seem to help.
- Nerve damage in the hands and feet caused by cancer drug treatment. Most research shows that taking magnesium does not prevent nerve damage caused by the cancer drug oxaliplatin.
- Limb pain that usually occurs after an injury (complex regional pain syndrome). Research suggests that using magnesium intravenously (by IV) for 4 hours each day for 5 days does not improve pain in people with chronic pain after an injury.
- Jellyfish stings. Research suggests that taking the medication fentanyl while receiving magnesium intravenously (by IV) does not reduce pain after a jellyfish sting more than fentanyl alone.
- Symptoms of menopause. Despite conflicting results, best evidence suggests that magnesium oxide doesn’t reduce hot flashes in postmenopausal women.
- Muscle cramps. Taking magnesium supplements does not seem to decrease the frequency or intensity of muscle cramps.
- Muscle strength. Some research suggests that applying a specific magnesium cream (MagPro) to muscles for one week does not improve muscle flexibility or endurance.
- Heart attack. In general, giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) or taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to reduce the overall risk of death after a heart attack.
- Injury to the brain, spine, or nerves (neurological trauma). Research suggests that magnesium does not improve the outcome or reduce the risk of death for people with a traumatic head injury.
- Leg cramps that occur at night. Research shows that taking magnesium for 4 weeks doesn’t prevent nighttime leg cramps.
- Sickle cell disease. Research shows that giving magnesium sulfate intravenously (by IV) every hour for 8 doses does not benefit children with sickle cell disease.
- Stillbirth. Taking magnesium supplements during pregnancy does not seem to decrease the risk of stillbirths.
- A serious infection caused by Clostridium bacteria (tetanus). Taking magnesium does not seem to reduce the risk of death in people with tetanus compared to standard treatment. However, taking magnesium might reduce the amount of time spent in the hospital, although results are conflicting.
- Alcohol use disorder. Taking magnesium by mouth seems to improve sleep quality in people who are dependent on alcohol and going through withdrawal. However, injecting magnesium as a shot does not seem to reduce alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
- Aluminum phosphide poisoning. Some research suggests that taking magnesium reduces the risk of death in people with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Other research suggests magnesium does not have this effect.
- Anxiety. Early research suggests that taking magnesium, hawthorn, and California poppy (Sympathyl, not available in the U.S.) might help treat mild to moderate anxiety disorder.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD seem to have lower magnesium levels. Early research suggests that magnesium might help treat ADHD in children with low magnesium levels.
- Back pain. Early research suggests that receiving magnesium intravenously (by IV) every 4 hours for 2 weeks while taking magnesium by mouth daily for 4 weeks reduces pain in people with chronic low back pain.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking a certain magnesium product (Magnesiocard) may have similar effects as lithium in some people with bipolar disorder. Other early research suggests that taking magnesium by mouth along with the drug verapamil reduces manic symptoms better than verapamil alone in people with bipolar disorder. Also, giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to reduce the dose of other drugs needed to manage severe manic symptoms.
- Sudden loss of heart function (cardiac arrest). Some preliminary research suggests that higher levels of magnesium are linked with a lower chance of cardiac arrest. However, it is not known if taking a magnesium supplement reduces the risk of cardiac arrest. Giving magnesium intravenously does not seem to have a benefit.
- Heart disease (cardiovascular disease). It is unclear if people who get more magnesium as part of their diet have a lower chance of heart disease. Some research has found that increasing magnesium intake in the diet is linked to a reduced risk of death related to heart disease. But other research has found no benefit.
- Kidney damage caused by cancer drugs. Using magnesium is linked with less kidney damage in people receiving the cancer drug cisplatin.
- Depression. It is unclear if people who get more magnesium as part of their diet have a lower chance of depression. It is also too early to know if magnesium can reduce symptoms in people with depression. Taking magnesium by mouth for 6 weeks seems to reduce mild to moderate depression in adults. But getting a single dose of magnesium intravenously (by IV) doesn’t reduce depression symptoms when measured one week later.
- Fractures. People who get more magnesium from their diet or as supplements seem to have a lower risk of fractures.
- Stomach cancer. People who get more magnesium from their diet or as supplements do not seem to have a lower risk of stomach cancer.
- High blood pressure. Most research shows that taking magnesium can lower diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number in a blood pressure reading) by about 2 mmHg. This decrease might be too small to have a meaningful impact on high blood pressure. There’s conflicting data about the effects of magnesium on systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading).
- Insomnia. Magnesium might reduce insomnia in the elderly. But it doesn’t seem to improve sleep in people without insomnia.
- Bleeding into or around the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) of the brain (intraventricular hemorrhage). Early research suggests that premature infants might have a lower risk of a brain bleed if their mothers receive magnesium by IV while pregnant.
- Kidney stones. Taking magnesium by mouth might prevent the recurrence of kidney stones. But other medications such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton) may be more effective.
- Infants born weighing less than 2500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces). Early research found that giving the mother magnesium might improve survival in very low birth weight babies.
- Migraine. Taking high doses of magnesium by mouth might help prevent migraines and slightly reduce their severity. But results are inconsistent. Some early research shows that using magnesium intravenously (by IV) might reduce migraines, but conflicting results exist. IV magnesium might relieve migraines only in people that don’t get enough magnesium in their diet.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). Taking magnesium might reduce stiff or rigid muscles in people with MS.
- Brain damage in infants caused by lack of oxygen. Research suggests that administering magnesium intravenously (by IV) might improve outcomes in infants with brain damage caused by lack of oxygen in the short-term. But it doesn’t seem to have long-term benefit.
- Obesity. It is unclear if taking magnesium by mouth improves weight loss in obese people. If it does, any benefits are likely to be small.
- Osteoarthritis. People who get more magnesium from their diet or as supplements don’t seem to have a lower risk of osteoarthritis compared with people who get less magnesium.
- Pain. People who get more magnesium from their diet or supplements seem to have a slightly lower risk of chronic pain.
- A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). Taking magnesium does not seem to reduce insulin resistance in women with PCOS.
- Nerve pain caused by shingles (postherpetic neuralgia). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) might improve pain in people with postherpetic neuralgia that do not get relief from other treatments.
- Leg cramps in women who are pregnant. Research on the use of magnesium for treating leg cramps caused by pregnancy has been inconsistent. Most studies show that taking magnesium by mouth might reduce leg cramps during pregnancy. However, one study shows no benefit. This study might have been too short to result in benefit.
- Preterm birth. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) might prevent contractions when premature labor occurs. Some research suggests that magnesium is more effective at delaying labor by 48 hours compared to some conventional drugs. But not all experts believe it is beneficial, and some research suggests it might cause more adverse effects.
- A rare, inherited disorder that causes buildup of minerals in the skin, eyes, and blood vessels (Pseudoxanthoma elasticum or PXE). Early research suggests that magnesium supplementation might reduce buildup of minerals in people with PXE.
- A disorder that causes leg discomfort and an irresistible urge to move the legs (restless legs syndrome or RLS). Taking magnesium by mouth might decrease the amount of movement and increase the amount of sleep in patients with restless legs syndrome. However, the role of magnesium, if any, in restless legs syndrome is uncertain. Some people with this condition have high levels of magnesium in their blood, while others have low magnesium levels.
- Stroke. Most early research found that increased intake of magnesium in the diet is linked with a reduced risk of death from stroke. There is also some evidence that increased dietary intake of magnesium seems to improve mental ability in people after stroke. The effects of magnesium given intravenously (by IV) are mixed. Some research shows that it might protect the brain in people after stroke. But other research shows that it does not reduce the risk of death or disability in most people.
- Bleeding in the space surrounding the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage). There is mixed evidence about the effect of magnesium in managing bleeding in the brain. Some research suggests that giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) reduces the risk of death and vegetative state. However, other research does not support these findings.
- Foot sores in people with diabetes.
- Hay fever.
- Lyme disease.
- Skin infections.
- Urinary incontinence.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate magnesium for these uses.
Magnesium is required for the proper growth and maintenance of bones. Magnesium is also required for the proper function of nerves, muscles, and many other parts of the body. In the stomach, magnesium helps neutralize stomach acid and moves stools through the intestine.
When taken by mouth: Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately. Doses less than 350 mg daily are safe for most adults. In some people, magnesium might cause stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and other side effects. When taken in very large amounts (greater than 350 mg daily), magnesium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Large doses might cause too much magnesium to build up in the body, causing serious side effects including an irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, confusion, slowed breathing, coma, and death.
When given as a shot or by IV: Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when the prescription-only, injectable product is used correctly by a healthcare provider.
Special Precautions & Warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth in doses less than 350 mg daily. Magnesium is POSSIBLY SAFE when the prescription-only, injectable product is given by IV or as a shot for up to 5 days before delivery. But prescription-only magnesium is given only to pregnant women with certain serious health conditions. There is evidence that using magnesium to suppress early labor might cause serious problems in the infant. Magnesium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses or when the prescription-only, injectable product is given by IV or as a shot for longer than 5 days. Taking magnesium by mouth in high doses can cause diarrhea and too much magnesium in the blood. Receiving prescription-only magnesium by IV or as a shot for longer than 5 days might cause bone and brain problems in the infant.
Children: Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth appropriately or when the prescription-only, injectable product is used correctly. Magnesium is safe when taken by mouth in doses less than 65 mg for children 1-3 years, 110 mg for children 4-8 years, and 350 mg for children older than 8 years. Magnesium is LIKELY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in higher doses.
Alcoholism: Alcohol abuse increases the risk for magnesium deficiency.
Bleeding disorders: Magnesium seem to slow blood clotting. In theory, taking magnesium might increase the risk of bleeding or bruising in people with bleeding disorders.
Diabetes: Diabetes increases the risk for magnesium deficiency. Poorly controlled diabetes reduces how much magnesium the body absorbs.
Elderly: The elderly are at risk for magnesium deficiency due to reduced magnesium absorption by the body and often the presence of diseases that also affect magnesium absorption.
Heart block: High doses of magnesium (typically delivered by IV) should not be given to people with heart block.
Diseases that affect magnesium absorption: How much magnesium the body absorbs can be reduces by many conditions, including stomach infections, immune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and others.
A condition called myasthenia gravis: Magnesium given intravenously (by IV) might worsen weakness and cause breathing difficulties in people with a condition called myasthenia gravis.
Kidney problems, such as kidney failure: Kidneys that don’t work well have trouble clearing magnesium from the body. Taking extra magnesium can cause magnesium to build up to dangerous levels. Don’t take magnesium if you have kidney problems.
A disorder that causes a strong urge to move ones legs (restless legs syndrome; RLS): People with restless legs syndrome might have high magnesium levels. But it’s not clear if magnesium is the cause for this condition, as people with restless legs syndrome have also had magnesium deficiency.
Antibiotics (Aminoglycoside antibiotics)
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Some antibiotics can affect the muscles. These antibiotics are called aminoglycosides. Magnesium can also affect the muscles. Taking these antibiotics and getting a magnesium shot might cause muscle problems.
Some aminoglycoside antibiotics include amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin), kanamycin (Kantrex), streptomycin, tobramycin (Nebcin), and others.
Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Magnesium might decrease how much antibiotic the body absorbs. Taking magnesium along with some antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of some antibiotics. To avoid this interaction take these antibiotics at least 2 hours before, or 4 to 6 hours after, magnesium supplements.
Some of these antibiotics that might interact with magnesium include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), trovafloxacin (Trovan), and grepafloxacin (Raxar).
Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics)
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Magnesium can attach to tetracyclines in the stomach. This decreases the amount of tetracyclines that the body can absorb. Taking magnesium along with tetracyclines might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction take calcium 2 hours before or 4 hours after taking tetracyclines.
Some tetracyclines include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin).
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Magnesium can decrease how much bisphosphate the body absorbs. Taking magnesium along with bisphosphates can decrease the effectiveness of bisphosphate. To avoid this interaction take bisphosphonate at least two hours before magnesium or later in the day.
Some bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), etidronate (Didronel), risedronate (Actonel), tiludronate (Skelid), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Magnesium might decrease blood pressure. Taking magnesium with medication for high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low.
Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Magnesium seems to help relax muscles. Taking magnesium along with muscle relaxants can increase the risk of side effects of muscle relaxants.
Some muscle relaxants include carisoprodol (Soma), pipecuronium (Arduan), orphenadrine (Banflex, Disipal), cyclobenzaprine, gallamine (Flaxedil), atracurium (Tracrium), pancuronium (Pavulon), succinylcholine (Anectine), and others.
Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)
Interaction Rating=Moderate Be cautious with this combination.
Some “water pills” can increase magnesium levels in the body. Taking some “water pills” along with magnesium might cause too much magnesium to be in the body.
Some “water pills” that increase magnesium in the body include amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium).
Boron: Magnesium in the blood is processed by the kidneys and excreted into the urine. It then leaves the body. In women, boron supplements can slow this process down and raise magnesium levels in the blood. In young women, age 18 to 25 years, the effect appears to be greater in less active women than in athletic women. In postmenopausal women, the effect is more marked in women with low dietary magnesium intake. It is not known how important these effects are or whether they occur in men.
Calcium: Calcium supplements can decrease the absorption of dietary magnesium, but only at very high doses (2600 mg per day). However, in people with adequate magnesium stores, calcium doesn’t have any clinically significant effect on long-term magnesium balance. People at high risk for magnesium deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid interfering with dietary magnesium absorption. Magnesium does not seem to affect calcium absorption.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting: Using magnesium along with herbs that can slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, glucosamine, Panax ginseng, and others.
Vitamin D: Various forms of vitamin D increase magnesium absorption; especially when taken in high doses. This effect has been used to treat low magnesium in people with conditions that make it difficult for them to absorb magnesium.
Zinc: High doses of zinc (142 mg per day) appear to decrease magnesium absorption and magnesium balance in healthy adult men. Also, moderately high dietary zinc intake (53 mg per day) seems to increase magnesium loss in postmenopausal women. This might harm bone health. More research is needed to find out how important this interaction is.
There are no known interactions with foods.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- General: The daily Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for elemental magnesium are: 19-30 years, 400 mg (men) and 310 mg (women); 31 years and older, 420 mg (men) and 320 mg (women). For pregnant women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 400 mg; 19-30 years, 350 mg; 31-50 years, 360 mg. For lactating women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 360 mg; 19-30 years, 310 mg; 31-50 years, 320 mg. The daily upper intake level (UL) for magnesium is 350 mg for anyone over 8 years old, including pregnant and breast-feeding women.
- For constipation: 8.75-25 grams of magnesium citrate has been used, usually as 150-300 mL in a 290 mg/ 5 mL solution. 2.4-4.8 grams of magnesium hydroxide has also been used. 10-30 grams of magnesium sulfate has also been used. Magnesium salts should only be used for occasional treatment of constipation, and doses should be taken with a full 8 oz glass of water.
- For indigestion (dyspepsia): 400-1200 mg of magnesium hydroxide has been used up to four times daily. 800 mg of magnesium oxide daily has also been used.
- For low levels of magnesium in the blood (hypomagnesemia): 3 grams of magnesium sulfate, taken every 6 hours for four doses, has been used. A 5% solution of magnesium chloride has been used by mouth daily for 16 weeks. Magnesium-rich mineral water (Hepar) containing 110 mg/L has also been used. 10.4 mmol of magnesium lactate, taken by mouth daily for 3 months, has been used. Avoid magnesium oxide and magnesium carbonate.
- For irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias): 2.163 mg of magnesium-DL-hydrogen aspartate and 2.162 mg of potassium-DL-hydrogen aspartate given daily for 21 days has been used.
- For heart disease: 800-1200 mg of magnesium oxide taken daily for 3 months has been used.
- For diabetes: For type 2 diabetes, 2.5 grams of magnesium chloride in a 50 mL solution daily for 16 weeks has been used. 300 mL of salt lake water with naturally high magnesium content diluted with distilled water to contain 100 mg of magnesium per 100 mL of water has been used daily for 30 days. 360 mg of magnesium daily for 4 to 16 weeks has been used. For type 1 diabetes, 300 mg of a specific magnesium gluconate supplement (Ultramagnesium) daily for 5 years has been used.
- For fibromyalgia: Magnesium hydroxide plus malic acid (Super Malic tablets) has been used. 300 mg of magnesium citrate daily for 8 weeks has also been used.
- For hearing loss: 167 mg of magnesium aspartate mixed in 200 mL lemonade, taken daily for 8 weeks or as a single dose, has been used.
- For high cholesterol: 1 gram of magnesium oxide daily for 6 weeks has been used.
- For a grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome): 365 mg of magnesium aspartate daily for 6 months has been used.
- For a disease of heart valves (mitral valve prolapse): 1200-1800 mg of magnesium carbonate taken daily for 5 weeks has been used.
- For weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis): 300-1800 mg of magnesium hydroxide taken daily for 6 months, followed by 600 mg of magnesium hydroxide taken daily for 18 months, has been used. 1830 mg of magnesium citrate has been used daily for 30 days. In addition to estrogen, 600 mg of magnesium plus 500 mg of calcium and a multivitamin supplement has been used daily for one year.
- For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 333 mg of magnesium oxide taken daily for two menstrual cycles has been used. A higher dose of 360 mg elemental magnesium three times daily has been used from the 15th day of the menstrual cycle until menstrual period begins. 360 mg of elemental magnesium taken three times daily for 2 months has been used. A combination of 200 mg of magnesium daily plus 50 mg of vitamin B6 daily has been used.
- For seizures in women with pre-eclampsia: 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate by IV infusion, followed by 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate every 4 hours, or 1 to 3 grams of magnesium sulfate per hour by constant IV infusion has been used. Doses should not exceed 30 to 40 grams of magnesium sulfate daily. A higher dose of magnesium sulfate (9-14 grams) followed by a smaller dose (2.5-5 grams every 4 hours for 24 hours) has also been used.
- For low levels of magnesium in the blood (hypomagnesemia): A typical starting dose for mild deficiency is 1 gram of magnesium sulfate intramuscularly (IM) every 6 hours for 4 doses. For more severe deficiency, 5 grams of magnesium sulfate may be given as an intravenous (IV) infusion over 3 hours. To prevent magnesium deficiency, adults typically receive 60-96 mg of elemental magnesium daily.
- For a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia): 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate by IV infusion, followed by 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate every 4 hours, or 1 to 3 grams of magnesium sulfate per hour by constant IV infusion has been used. Doses should not exceed 30 to 40 grams of magnesium sulfate daily. A higher dose of magnesium sulfate (9grams) followed by a smaller dose (5 grams every 4 hours for 24 hours) has also been used.
- For a type of irregular heartbeat (torsades de pointes): 1 to 6 grams of magnesium sulfate given by IV over several minutes, followed by an IV infusion has been used.
- For irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias): For reducing irregular heartbeat after a heart attack, 8 grams of magnesium sulfate in 250 mL of solution over 12 hours has been used. For irregular or rapid heartbeat, an IV infusion of 5 grams of magnesium sulfate in 100 mL of solution has been used. Half of the dose is given over 20 minutes, followed by the remainder over 2 hours. For faster heartbeat, a single IV dose of 1-4 grams of magnesium chloride given over 5 minutes has been used. For abnormal heartbeat caused by a pacemaker, 2 grams of magnesium sulfate in 10 mL of solution has been given by IV over 1-10 minutes, followed by 5-10 grams of magnesium sulfate in 250-500 mL of solution over 5 hours.
- For asthma: Doses of 1-2 grams of magnesium sulfate have been given over 20 to 30 minutes. A dose of 78 mg/kg/hour of magnesium sulfate has been given by IV during, and for 30 minutes before, a lung function test.
- For nerve pain in people with cancer: Single doses of 0.5-1 gram of magnesium sulfate have been given as 1 mL or 2 mL of a 50% magnesium sulfate injection over 5-10 minutes.
- For cerebral palsy: For preventing cerebral palsy in the infant, 4 grams of magnesium sulfate has been given by IV over 10-30 minutes to women close to their expected due date. Magnesium sulfate is then sometimes given by IV at a dose of 1 gram per hour until birth or for 24 hours has been used.
- For a lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD): 1.2 grams of magnesium sulfate has been given by IV after using an inhaler. 1.2-2 grams of magnesium sulfate in 100-150 mL of solution over 20 minutes has been used.
- For cluster headache: 1 gram of magnesium sulfate over 5 minutes has been used. Single 1 gram doses of magnesium sulfate have also been used.
- For pain after surgery: 5-50 mg/kg of magnesium by IV followed by a continuous IV solution at 6 mg/kg or 500 mg hourly has been used for the duration of the operation up to 48 hours. Also, 3.7-5.5 grams of magnesium in addition to pain medication has been used within 24 hours after surgery. In addition, 3 grams of magnesium sulfate in an IV solution has been used followed by 0.5 grams of magnesium sulfate by IV per hour for 20 hours.
- For chest pain due to blood vessel spasms (vasospastic angina): 65 mg/kg of body weight of magnesium given by IV over 20 minutes has been used.
INJECTED AS A SHOT:
- For seizures in women with pre-eclampsia: 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate diluted in saline over 10-15 minutes given intravenously (by IV) followed by 5 grams of magnesium sulfate injected as a shot into each buttock, and 2.5 or 5 grams of magnesium sulfate injected as a shot every 4 hours for 24 hours has been used.
- For chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): Solution containing 1 gram of magnesium sulfate has been given as a shot once weekly for 6 weeks.
- For a pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia): 4-5 grams of magnesium sulfate diluted in saline over 10-15 minutes given intravenously (by IV) followed by 5 grams of magnesium sulfate injected as a shot into each buttock, and 5 grams of magnesium sulfate injected as a shot every 4 hours for 24 hours has been used.
- For a lung disease that makes it harder to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD): 2.5 mg of the drug salbutamol along with 2.5 mL of magnesium sulfate (151 mg per dose), inhaled three times at 30 minute intervals, has been used.
- General: The daily Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for elemental magnesium are: Age 1-3 years, 80 mg; 4-8 years, 130 mg; 9-13 years, 240 mg; 14-18 years, 410 mg (boys) and 360 mg (girls). For infants less than one year of age, adequate intake (AI) levels are 30 mg from birth to 6 months and 75 mg from 7 to 12 months. The daily upper intake level (UL) for magnesium is 65 mg for children age 1-3 years, and 110 mg for 4-8 years.
- For cystic fibrosis: 300 mg of magnesium-glycine taken daily for 8 weeks has been used.
- For asthma: 40 mg/kg of magnesium sulfate, up to a maximum of 2 grams, has been given by IV in 100 mL of solution over 20 minutes.
Aspartate de Magnésium, Atomic Number 12, Carbonate de Magnésium, Chelated Magnesium, Chlorure de Magnésium, Citrate de Magnésium, Dimagnesium Malate, Epsom Salts, Gluconate de Magnésium, Glycérophosphate de Magnésium, Glycinate de Magnésium, Hydroxyde de Magnésium, Lactate de Magnésium, Lait de Magnésium, Magnesia, Magnesia Carbonica, Magnesia Muriatica, Magnesia Phosphorica, Magnesia Sulfate, Magnesia Sulfurica, Magnesio, Magnésium, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Aspartate, Magnesium Carbonate, Magnésium Chelaté, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Disuccinate Hydrate, Magnesium Gluconate, Magnesium Glycerophosphate, Magnesium Glycinate, Magnesium Hydroxide, Magnesium Lactate, Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Murakab, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Phosphate, Magnesium Phosphoricum, Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium Taurate, Magnesium Taurinate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Malate de Magnésium, Milk of Magnesia, Mg, Numéro Atomique 12, Orotate de Magnésium, Oxyde de Magnésium, Phosphate de Magnésium, Sels d’Epsom, Sulfate de Magnésium, Trisilicate de Magnésium.
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